participatory manage• ment models and the rules and norms established by the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC – Lei #, July 18, ). On July 18, , through Law , the Brazilian Government created the National System of Protected Areas (SNUC, in Portuguese), in order to establish a. 15 mar. Lei nº / – SNUC, a PROGE foi, em casos específicos, consultada sobre a legali- dade de retomada de mineração em Flona, tendo as.
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Socio-environmentalism is understood as a perspective that considers social inclusion in the management of protected areas; it comprises Social Ecology, Political Ecology and 99985 Justice, and it advocates for a paradigm shift in the environmental knowledge and in the policies directed to the area, by valuing the local communities’ culture, participation and self-determination Menezes and Siena,p.
Finally, the opinions of the federal RVS managers about their view on the category and on some perceptible obstacles to the management of these conservation units were analyzed. In a world of complex social and environmental societies, the ways of understanding the changes must evolve accordingly. Finally, there are managers who consider the category, in a way, as a forced practice of sustainable development, as it can be seen in the following statement:.
Dias and Pereira describe the change that occurred in the environmental and political perspectives regarding the development and management of Conservation Units since Thus, the difficulty to accept and live with constraints and determinations based on intangible needs, which are often specially geared to the common good and contrary to the hegemonic rationality, is somewhat understandable.
This lack of regulation that ignores the importance of discussing the location of this category – which is predominantly composed of private properties – in a sort of intersection between the full protection and sustainable use groups, generates often-insurmountable obstacles to the management process. This change in the RVS definition puts it away from its inspiration sources, as well as from the almost unanimous view that the category would have the primary function of protecting the fauna.
According to this understanding, this category may have been considered as a sort of Natural Monument i concept applied to the kei context. The current study consists of an exploratory research that sought to deepen the knowledge about the RVS by investigating the possible sources of the category within the context of the National Protected Areas System Law.
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Therefore, the RVS category may be asserted. The authors point to a “mixed” environmentalism composed of a plural environmentalist view or to the perspective of a developing environmentalism, and they cogitate the existence of a moderate preservationism or a real change of concept.
According to Drummond and Barros-Platiauthe Forest Code and the Wildlife Dnuc were responsible for the future CU categories of 995 protection and sustainable use, since they envisioned protected areas that could not be used national, state and local parks and biological reserves as well as those where the direct use was allowed national forests and hunting sunc.
The units were created according to policies that encouraged environmental devastation “sometimes on behalf of the development, sometimes as a result of the abandonment of territorial planning, sometimes as a consequence of the pursuit for national integration, or as a result of the most absolute administrative negligence” OLIVEIRA,p.
However, the system does not allow such a practice, i. It was possible to identify the shift in the category focus from specific resources to a broader concept of natural environment as a whole, fact that put it very close to the other full protection categories. According to the bill and to Feldmann’s clean bill, protection referred to the “conditions for the existence and reproduction of species or communities”.
Thus, the current study proposes to broaden our perspective regarding the Wildlife Refuge category, not only regarding what appears to be its main aspect, namely: However, these difficulties are not strong enough to consider it as an unviable category. Although it is initially clear that the RVS may shuc composed of private properties, later in his text the author includes the RVS in the purely public domain CU group, in which expropriation is mandatory.
As leo the management sjuc protected areas, the period from to was featured by inconstancy.
In the same study, Irving cited by Medeiros, Irving and Garayp. This chapter explicitly determined the creation and delimitation of protected areas and confirmed the common duty of both the society and the State in maintaining and protecting nature. However, the current research proposes a reflection on the possibility of looking to other directions by focusing not only on dualistic antagonisms, but also on complementarity terms without conflict denial LIMA,since, according to Leffp.
Nunes, Costa and Lustosa contextualized the environmental concern according to the economic dimension, and they generalized the Full Protection CU group, including the RVS, as units where “the presence of permanent populations as well as of economic activities are prohibited” p. However, the GT creation process dates back to and it is currently listed as “inactive” on the Ministry’s website. Based on this survey, the study sought to identify the critical points in the SVR category concept within the SNUC preparation context.
On the other hand, 99985 documentary research focused on investigating bills, minutes of meetings and public hearings, standards and relevant legislation in order to reconstruct the history of the Brazilian Conservation Units’ creation and management, especially that of the RVS category.
This shift has important consequences, which we will discussed later. On the other hand, Feldmann’s clean bill stated that “the private properties held in the Wildlife Refuges may breed domestic animals compatible with the unit’s purposes, according to its Management Plan” SOUZA,Annex A.
Parques | Unidades de Conservação
It is worth highlighting that the bill made clear that the Executive Power could limit or prohibit activities in conflict with the RVS creation purposes; however, such an item was deleted in Feldmann’s clean bill and it did not appear in SNUC.
However, throughout the long SNUC development process, the category definition has undergone changes that led it to be differently applied in practice. However, the current study is not interested in discussing this differentiation; thus, it is important to keep in mind that sjuc the protected areas in the form of conservation units are herein analyzed.
Firstly, it is worth clarifying the difference between protected areas and conservation units. Federal RVS creation and management By analyzing the decrees that created the Federal Refuges, it was possible to see that only one of the seven existing refuges has some direct relation to the protection of fauna species among its goals.
It is worth highlighting again that, according to SNUC law, the RVS category is focused on protecting “environments” rather than “endangered species”, as it occurs in the American National Wildlife Refuges. The current study is a call for reflection and it does not intend to exhaust the debates and implementations that are essential to understand the role played by the Wildlife Refuge Conservation Unit category in Brazil.
According to the same author op. In addition, according to Dias and PereiraBrazil was strongly criticized in the early due the fires in the Amazon and to Chico Mendes assassination.
However, the recent snkc, as well as the increasing awareness about the complexity, will gradually give meaning to the actions taken in this direction nowadays.
According to the bill BRASIL,the RVS must ensure conditions for the existence and reproduction of local flora species or communities as well as of resident or migratory fauna.