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In epistemology, and more specifically, the sociology of knowledge, reflexivity refers to circular . Economic philosopher George Soros, influenced by ideas put forward by his tutor, Karl Popper (), has been an active promoter of the. This led me to start questioning the assumptions of economic theory. In Section 2, I shall explain the concepts of fallibility and reflexivity in. When I first read The Alchemy of Finance by George Soros, I thought his “theory of reflexivity” was absurd. It seemed to be an ex post facto.

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Archaeological Biological Cultural Linguistic Social. London and Beverly Hills: Reflexivity was taken up as an issue in science in general by Karl Popperwho called it the ‘Oedipal effect’, and more comprehensively by Ernest Nagel Reflexivity has emerged as both an issue and a solution in modern approaches to the problem of structure and agencyfor example in the work of Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory and Pierre Bourdieu in his genetic structuralism.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rooted in literary criticism and philosophical analysis of the relationship of anthropologist, representations of people in texts, and the people represented, this approach has fundamentally changed ethical and methodological approaches in anthropology.

The New Paradigm for Financial Markets: In researching cultural practices reflexivity plays important role but because of its complexity and subtlety it reflexivkty goes under-investigated or involves highly specialized analyses.

The second kind of reflexivity studied by anthropologists involves varieties of self-reference in which people and cultural practices call attention to themselves. A low level of reflexivity would result in an individual shaped largely by their environment or “society”.

Reflexivity is inconsistent with general equilibrium theorywhich stipulates that markets move towards equilibrium and that non-equilibrium fluctuations are merely random noise that will soon be corrected. The principle of reflexivity was perhaps first enunciated by georgs sociologists William I.

This is similar to the notion of tehory. Foucault examines the history of Western thought since the Renaissance and argues that each historical epoch he identifies 3, while proposing a 4th has an epistemeor “a historical a priori “, that structures and organizes knowledge.

Margaret Archer has written extensively on laypeople’s reflexivity. A high level of social reflexivity would be defined by an individual shaping their own norms, tastes, politics, desires, and so on.

Reflexivity is, therefore, a methodological issue in the social sciences analogous to the observer effect. In anthropology, reflexivity has come to have two distinct meanings, one that refers to the researcher’s awareness of an analytic focus on his or her relationship to the field of study, and the other that attends to the ways that cultural practices involve consciousness and commentary on themselves.


Studies of play and tricksters further expanded ideas about reflexive cultural practices. Reflexivity about the research process became an important part of the critique of the colonial roots [12] and scientistic methods of anthropology in the “writing cultures” [13] movement associated with James Clifford and George Marcusas well as many other anthropologists.

Within sociology more broadly—the field of origin— reflexivity means an act of self-reference where examination or action “bends back on”, refers to, and affects the entity instigating the action or examination. Palgrave Macmillan Grunberg, E. This is an instance of a positive feedback loop.

Reflexivity (social theory)

Making our way through the world: Reflexivity asserts that prices do in fact influence the fundamentals and that these newly influenced set of fundamentals then proceed to change expectations, thus influencing prices; the process continues in a self-reinforcing pattern. Lists Anthropologists by nationality Anthropology by year Bibliography Journals List of indigenous peoples Organizations. Bourdieu argued that the social scientist is inherently laden with biasesand only by becoming reflexively aware of those biases can the social scientists free themselves from them and aspire to the practice of an objective science.

He finishes the book by posing the problem of the age of man and our pursuit of knowledge- where “man is both knowing subject and the object of his own study”; thus, Theoory argues that the social sciences, far from being objective, produce truth in their own mutually exclusive discourses.

In epistemologyand more specifically, the sociology of knowledgereflexivity refers to circular relationships between cause and effectespecially as embedded in human belief structures.

Innovation may or may not change tradition, but since reflexivity is intrinsic to many cultural reflxeivity, reflexivity is part of tradition and not inauthentic. Thus for example an anthropologist living in an isolated village may affect the village and the behaviour of its citizens under study.

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Retrieved from ” https: This leads to the metaculture of conventions about managing and reflecting upon culture. Within that part of recent sociology of science that has been called the strong programmereflexivity is suggested soroa a methodological norm refelxivity principle, meaning that a full theoretical account of the social construction of, say, scientific, religious or ethical knowledge systems, should itself be explainable by the same principles and methods as used for accounting for these other knowledge systems.


Reflexivity includes both a subjective process of self-consciousness inquiry and the study of social behavior with reference to theories about social relationships.

They can play with, comment upon, debate, modify, and objectify culture through manipulating many different features in recognized ways. This page was last edited on 22 Decemberat One use of studying reflexivity is in connection to authenticity. Anthropologists by nationality Anthropology by year Bibliography Journals List of indigenous peoples Organizations.

Sinhalese demons and Tewa clowns. Giddensfor example, noted that constitutive reflexivity is possible in any social system, and that this presents a distinct methodological problem for the social sciences.

Reflexivity (social theory) – Wikipedia

In equilibrium theory, prices in the long run at equilibrium reflect the underlying economic fundamentalswhich are unaffected by prices. Annual Review of Anthropology. In social theoryreflexivity may occur when theories in a discipline should apply equally forcefully to the discipline itself, for example in the case that the theories of knowledge construction in the field of sociology of scientific knowledge should apply equally to knowledge construction by sociology of scientific knowledge practitioners, or when the subject matter of a discipline should apply equally well to the individual practitioners of that discipline, for example when psychological theory should explain the psychological mental processes of psychologists.

This is the opposite of the process described in textbooks and built into economic models, which always assume that financial expectations adapt to reality, not the other way round.

New Frontiers in the Sociology of Knowledge. Because the pattern is self-reinforcing, markets tend towards disequilibrium.

Within economicsreflexivity refers to the self-reinforcing effect of market sentiment, whereby rising prices attract buyers whose actions drive prices higher still until the process becomes unsustainable. Social Dramas and Stories about Them. Mertonbuilt on the Thomas principle to define the notion of a self-fulfilling prophecy: Actor—network theory Alliance theory Cross-cultural studies Cultural materialism Culture theory Diffusionism Feminism Historical particularism Boasian anthropology Functionalism Interpretive Performance studies Political economy Practice theory Structuralism Post-structuralism Systems theory.

Reflexivity presents geoge problem for science because if a prediction can lead to changes in the system that the prediction is made in relation to, it becomes difficult to assess scientific hypotheses by comparing the predictions they entail with the events that actually occur.