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Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.

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In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention Done at Geneva, on the 18 day of May Skip to main content. Canada’s opening statement, in: Ressources naturelles et conflits.

Yet ENMOD suffers from several loopholes which could not be filled by the first two review conferences, despite the insistence of several states, particularly Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands.

ENMOD Primer: The Second Review Conference

Article 2 specifies what is meant exactly by the term “environmental modification techniques”. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to provide or support assistance, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, to any State Party which so requests, if the Security Council decides that such Party has been harmed or is likely to be harmed as a result of violation of the Convention.

For those States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited after the entry into force of this Convention, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession. Instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. At the end of the Gulf War, the Security Council, established liability for the environmental damages caused by Iraq as a condition to the cessation of hostilities Resolution of April 3, Inat the 6th Committee of the UN General Assembly, when addressing the environmental devastation produced by Iraq in Kuwait, some countries had specifically referred to ENMOD’s applicability to those events.

Against this background, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has initiated a process of soliciting the views of the States parties to the Convention on the convening of the Third Review conference of the States parties to the Convention, as follows: This Convention shall be registered by the Depositary in accordance with Article of the Charter of the United Nations.


During the 1st review conference inthe delegation of the Netherlands very appropriately reminded us of History to demonstrate the risk of international arms control instruments becoming obsolete: As of Januarythe Convention has 78 state parties.

France still has to ratify it and the European Union as a whole has to call, without delay, for the convening of a new review conference. However, a call for broader adherence will not achieve any more than a similar urging by the First Review Conference unless is accompanied by action that addresses the fundamental cause of low adherence to the ENMOD Convention, its perceived irrelevance to the real security of States.

Another must-read on this question: Only one State, Uruguay, expressed support for convening a new review conference, while two, USA and UK, stated that they see no need for such a conference The Convention now has 77 States Parties.

Article II As used in article 1, the term “environmental modification techniques” refers to any technique for changing – through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes – the dynamics, composition or structure of the Earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space.

Whilst in these two instruments the term “environment” is preceded by the adjective “natural”, the Conveention Convention speaks of the “environment” without any attributive. The Second Review Conference took place in September The Convention was opened for signature at Geneva on 18 May Conventipn to the Convention Consultative Conventipn of Experts 1.

COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake

The Committee shall decide procedural questions relative to the organization of its congention, where possible by consensus, but otherwise by a majority of those present and voting. Retrieved 19 June This Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Peace and War at Stake. The European duo proposal that a specific reference to the use of herbicides which from had been acknowledged by the US as a potential ENMOD violation would be a positive step.

The work of the Consultative Committee of Experts shall be enmid in such a way as to permit it to perform the functions set forth in paragraph 1 of this annex. Thirty-first session, Supplement No.

States parties undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to another State party article I.

Vonvention Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary, who shall promptly circulate it to all States Parties. In their view, ENMOD needed more specific prohibitions to achieve greater applicability and enomd International Committee of the Red Cross. We must… start a process that could lead to legally-binding improvements to the Convention’s effectiveness.


UN Documents Gathering a body of global agreements. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of enmd, damage or injury to any other State Party.

Environmental Modification Convention

A propos de cette page Auteur s: For the purposes set forth in paragraph 1 of this article, the Depositary shall within one month of the receipt of a request from any Coonvention Party to this Convention, convene a Consultative Committee of Experts.

Three other should have taken place since, but the third one is still awaited. It should be noted that the adjectives “widespread” “long-lasting” and “severe” are echoed widespread, long-term, severe in Protocol I additional to the Geneva Conventions Article 35, para. These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: Stating that under existing international customary law it is already prohibited to cause significant damage to the environment conventtion other States or areas beyond national jurisdiction.

This conventoon was last edited on 28 Januaryat At least one unidentified state party opposed the need to convene the Consultative Committee of Experts, and a reference to that fact was also included in xonvention Final Declaration [PDF].

COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake | Grip

The Declaration fell into oblivion, thus breaking a process of successive reviews which could have led to nothing less than totally prohibiting bombings…. The Convention was signed by 48 states; 16 of the signatories have not ratified. In other projects Wikisource. Indeed, it was Convfntion torching of oil wells – a very low tech activity with devastating environmental consequences – that provided political momentum to convene the Conference.